Mumbai (formerly Bombay), situated on the west coast of India, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
It has an estimated population of 30 million 29 million, which is the first most populous city in the country. It is formed by seven small lava-forming islands and is connected with the major landmass by the bridge. The Mumbai Port is the best maritime port in India.
The coast of Mumbai is chopped and torn due to which it is natural and safe. Ship passengers and tourists arriving by waterways or airways from western countries like Europe, America, Africa etc. come to Mumbai first, hence Mumbai is called the gateway of India.
Mumbai is also called the city of dreams. Mumbai is also the best economic and commercial center of India. Which accounts for 5% of India’s GDP.
It accounts for 25% of the entire industrial product of India, 40% of the shipping business, and 70% of the capital transactions of the Indian economy. Mumbai World Is one of the top ten commercial centers of India. Head offices of most of the bank and merchant offices in India and several important economic institutions like the Reserve Bank of India, Bombay Stock Exchange, National Stock Exchange and corporate headquarters of many Indian companies and multinationals Located in Mumbai.
Therefore, it is also called the economic capital of India. The city also has the Hindi film and television industry of India, which is famous by the name of Bollywood. Mumbai’s commercial hospitality and high standard of living attracts people from all over India, due to which the city has become a mixture of different societies and cultures.
The Mumbai port handles about half of India’s sea freight. Mumbai Municipal Corporation has a total of 227 corporators. Mumbai Municipal Corporation is considered to be the highest municipality in the world in terms of money.
Ancient remains found in North Mumbai near Kandivali indicate that the islands have been inhabited since the Stone Age. Written evidence of the human population dates back to 250 BCE, when it was called haptanesia. 3rd century BC These islands became part of the Mauryan Empire, when the Buddhist Emperor Ashoka the Great was ruled.
In some early centuries, control of Mumbai was disputed between the Satavahana Empire and the Indo-Scythian Western Satrap. Later the kings of the Hindu Silhara dynasty ruled here until 1383, until the Raja of Gujarat captured them. Some ancient specimens, such as Elephanta caves and the Balkeshwar temple are found in this period.
In 1537, the Portuguese seized this island from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat. Which was later given as dowry to Charles II, England. Charles was married to Catherine de Burganza. The islands were leased to the British East India Company in 18 at a rate of only ten pounds per year.
The company found a deep harbor at the eastern end of the island, which was the best to establish the first port in the subcontinent. The population here was only ten thousand in 1861, which increased to sixty thousand in 185. In 14 East India Company shifted its headquarters from Surat and established it here in Mumbai. And eventually the city became the headquarters of the Bombay Presidency.
The Gateway of India was built on 2 December 1911 to welcome the arrival of Emperor George V and Queen Mary in India, which was completed on 6 December 1926.
After 1714, the city was revitalized by large-scale civil works. The main project involved connecting all the islands into one connected island. The project was called Hornby Vellard, which was completed in 185, and completed 738bsp; km. In 1853, India’s first passenger railway line was established, which connected Mumbai to Thane. During the American Civil War, the city became the world’s major cotton business market, strengthening its economy, and increasing the level of the city.
Since the opening of the Suez Canal in 179, it became the largest port in the Arabian Sea. Over the next thirty years, the city developed into a major civic center. This development was complete with the development of infrastructure and construction of various institutions.
By 1906, the city’s population had grown to nearly one million billion. It was now the second largest city in India, after Calcutta, the then capital of India. As the capital of the Bombay Presidency, it remained the basis of the Indian freedom struggle.
The major event of this struggle in Mumbai was the Quit India Movement waged by Mahatma Gandhi in 1972. After Indian independence in 1949, it became the capital of Bombay state. In 1950, the city reached its present borders, joining parts of the island of Salsette on the northern side.
After 1955, when the Bombay state was rearranged and divided on the basis of language into the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat, a demand arose that the city be given the status of an autonomous city-state.
However, there was strong opposition in the Samyukta Maharashtra agitation, and the emphasis was on making Mumbai the capital of Maharashtra. Due to these protests, 105 people were killed in police firing and finally on 1st May, 1960, Maharashtra state was established, whose capital was made Mumbai.
Flora Fountain was renamed Hutatma Chowk, which became a memorial to the martyrs of the United Maharashtra Movement.
By the late 1980s, there was a millennium in its construction, which brought the number of inbound migrants here to a high point. With this, Mumbai overtook Calcutta in population, and took the first place. This inflow aroused a concern among the local Marathi people, who were apprehensive of losing their culture, business, language.
The Shiv Sena party was formed by Bala Saheb Thackeray, which was formed to protect the interest of the Marathas. The secular formula of the city was shattered due to the riots of 192-93, which resulted in loss of life and property on a large scale.
A few months later, on March 12, 193, a series of bomb blasts rocked the city. Hundreds of people were killed in Mumbai. The city was renamed as Mumbai in 1955.
This happened under the historic and local renaming policy of the British carpet names of the Shiv Sena government. There have also been terrorist attacks by Islamic militants in recent years. Train blasts occurred here in 2007, killing more than two hundred people, when several bombs exploded in Mumbai’s local trains.
Mumbai is an important economic center of the country, accounting for 10% of all factory jobs, 70% of all income tax collections, 60% of all customs duties, 20% of central revenue and India’s foreign trade and ₹ 40 billion (US $ 580 million). ) Contributes from corporate taxes.
Mumbai’s per capita income is ₹ 48,954 (US $ 710), nearly three times the national average income. Many large industries in India (State Bank of India, Tata Group , Godrej and Reliance) and four Fortune Global 500 companies are also based in Mumbai.
Many foreign banks and institutions also have branches located in the World Trade Center area. By the year 1980, Mumbai was prosperous due to its textile industry and port, but the local economy has improved many times since then.
It has now included engineering, gem business, health care and information technology. The Bhabha Molecular Research Center is also located in Mumbai. It is here that most of the specialized technology industries of India are located, which have modern industrial infrastructure as well as vast amount of skilled human resources.
Rising stars of economic companies, aerospace, optical engineering, all types of computer and electronic equipment, the ship industry and recycled power sources and power industries have their own place here.
Central and state government employees make up a large part of the city’s jurisdiction. Mumbai has a large number of skilled and unskilled and semi-skilled workers, who prefer to live their lives by taxi-driver, hawker, mechanical and other blue collar jobs. The port and shipping industry also directly and indirectly employs a large number of employees. In the Dharavi area of the city, the waste recycling industry is established here. The district has an estimated 15,000 one-room factories.
The media industry is also a big employer here. India’s principal Doordarshan and satellite networks, and the main publishing houses operate from here. The center of the Hindi film industry is also located here, which releases the most films in the world every year. The word Bollywood is coined by combining Bombay and Hollywood. Marathi Doordarshan and Marathi film industry are also located in Mumbai.
Like the rest of India, its commercial capital Mumbai has also witnessed an economic boom (millennium) due to the government liberalization policy of 191. Along with this, the mid-1990s have also seen the rise in information technology, exports, services and BPO industries.
While the middle-class citizens of Mumbai have been most affected by this boom, they are also the doers of the consumer boom in response to this. The upward mobility of these people has also raised the living standards and spending capacity of the consumers. In a survey by MasterCard Worldwide based on financial flows to Mumbai; It has been counted among the top ten commercial centers in the world.